The braking system is an important safety system in your vehicle as it allows you to slow the vehicle or stop the movement completely. The principle of brakes is quite simple. They convert the kinetic energy that is the force pressing on the brake pedal into thermal energy.
Depending on the model of a vehicle they will have either a disc brake system or drum brake system. Modern vehicles have a disc braking system on all four corners. But older cars or economy cars are using brake drums that are only located in the rear axle. The first component that we are starting with is the master cylinder. This is what pushed the hydraulic fluid from the brake fluid reservoir into the brake lines. This is not an individual cylinder however, you will usually find it as two or more cylinders so that safety is guaranteed even if one cylinder fails. Vehicles that have more safety features will use multiple cylinders. The brake rotor is attached to each wheel and it will spin when the vehicle moves. The motion of the rotor will slow down when friction is created due to the rubbing of the brake pad and the caliper against it. Cast iron is used to manufacture brake rotors as it is a material that can absorb a large amount of heat. These rotors are vented to allow high heat dissipation.
A brake drum is used when there is no brake rotor and this is seen in mostly older cars. The drum component will spin and when brakes are applied, the drum shoe is pressed against the inside of the cylinder halting the movement of the car. The brake pad is used in a disc brake system. Along with its caliper, the brake pad will rub against the spinning rotor to create friction. You can find different materials of brake pads and this will affect how long they last and how well they withstand heat. Brake calipers is what provides the clamping force that will press the brake pad against the rotor. The master cylinder will push brake fluid down the brake fluids and into the pistons that are inside the brake caliper.
A brake shoe is used in a drum braking system and it is the alternative to a brake pad that you find in disc braking system. It will press against the inner side of the drum brake when you press the brake pedal. A brake booster is used in a power braking system and it uses a vacuum pump that will increase the pressure you put on the brake pedal to slow the vehicle down. And you will be familiar with the brake pedal which is next to the gas. This is what is connected to the braking system and prompts the braking action. ABS or Anti-lock Braking System has speed sensors to detect how fast the wheels are spinning. The ABS system will determine how much force should be applied to bring the car to a stop. The computer for this braking system is called the ABS module.